Key principles

What are the key principles which inform learning and teaching in our schools,
learning centres and beyond in the community?  Our starting point is inclusion. Learners should not be subject to discrimination, intentional or otherwise, on the grounds of their social circumstances, gender, race, religion, cultural beliefs, disability or sexual orientation.  N.B. In the statements which follow, ‘teachers’ comprise all staff undertaking a teaching role.

Our key principles for all learners are:


Learners need motivation.  They should have a significant reason for engaging in the learning process and positive feelings about involvement.

Learners – especially the young – are often self-motivating; they are desperate to find out, know, understand – it’s as natural as breathing.  Learning brings its own emotional and/or intellectual reward. Equally often, though, learners require an external incentive to provide motivation – an award, a certificate, a prize, praise, promotion.  To be effective, such incentives must be meaningful to the learner.

As teachers – often through personal example – we should foster a love of learning by nurturing self motivation.  But we should also motivate – inspire, challenge and praise.  We should show that we value all learners, creating an ethos of achievement and organising tasks which will bring rewards that matter from the learner’s point of view.


Learners need to participate in the learning process.  They should be active and take as much responsibility as possible for their own learning. 

Learners should lead whenever possible.  They should make informed choices about what, where and how they learn; they should self and peer assess.  Learners should be aware of themselves as learners, conscious of their own preferred styles of learning, confident enough to seek help, perceptive enough to know where help may be best sought, skilful enough to access help readily.

As teachers, we are lifelong learners – a state of mind which should inform our professional practice, development and our own wider learning.  Through collegiality, we should create learning communities in our classrooms, establishments and beyond.


Learners need to communicate through verbal and/or multi-sensory dialogue.  Research and empirical evidence demonstrate that real understanding takes place when learners work through with someone else what is to be learned and how far they have been successful in their learning.

Learners, where possible, should talk through their learning regularly with their teachers, their peers, parents and others.  They should question, answer, expound, challenge assertions, support propositions, offer alternatives, suggest solutions, peer assess …

As teachers – through personal example and setting standards in our questioning and provision of feedback – we should create the conditions in which communication and dialogue can thrive, where self confidence and respect for others underpin all interaction, where achievement is celebrated and error welcomed as a stepping stone to success.


Learners need to think.  This thinking should be critical and creative, robust and flexible in order that all may understand and achieve their potential whatever the context. 

Learners should be positively critical: questioning, investigating, testing, seeking after the truth about themselves, others and the world in which they live.  They should be creative: imagining, expressing, exploring the boundaries of the possible so that there are no limits to ambition.

As teachers we should be thinkers: reflective professionals – self aware, systematically evaluative, focused on our own improvement and that of those in our care.  We should use the language of thinkers, ask the questions that matter, enable and empower other learners to ask those questions,  so that they and those who respond may make their thinking explicit.  Crucially, despite the pressures, we ourselves should take time to think.